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Retrieved 27 November Archived from the original on 15 May These give way farther south to alluvial plains, which are separated from the coast by a vast belt of ancient dunes stretching more than miles 1, km from south of Kismaayo Chisimaio to north of Hobyo Obbia.
The flatness of the Somalian plateaus is interrupted by several deep valleys. Starting in the northeast, these are the Dharoor and Nugaaleed Nogal valleys ; both are wadis that, in season, have rivers flowing into the Indian Ocean at Xaafuun and Eyl, respectively.
In the southwest are the only permanent rivers in Somalia, the Jubba and the Shabeelle Shebeli. Originating in the Ethiopian highlands, these two streams cut deeply into the plateaus before meandering through the alluvial plains toward the coast.
Whereas the Jubba flows directly from north of Kismaayo into the Indian Ocean, the Shabeelle veers southwest immediately to the north of Mogadishu and flows into a large swamp before reaching the Jubba.
The Jubba carries more water than the Shabeelle, which sometimes dries up in its lower course in years of sparse rainfall in the Ethiopian highlands.
During dry seasons these rivers are a major source of water for people and animals. Because over most of the country the water table is deep or the groundwater has a high mineral content, the conservation of surface runoff is of primary importance.
The types of soil vary according to climate and parent rock. The arid regions of northeastern Somalia have mainly thin and infertile desert soils.
The limestone plateaus of the interfluvial area have fertile dark gray to brown calcareous residual soils that provide good conditions for rain-fed agriculture.
The most fertile soils are found on the alluvial plains of the Jubba and Shabeelle rivers. The group has raised alarms in the U.
The group seeks to return Somalia to an Islamist state and has intimidated civilians with stonings, by chopping off hands, and by banning many forms of technology, while continuing to wage war against the transitional government.
Al-Shabab has taken advantage of the power vacuum and weak transitional government. By February , the group controlled almost all of southern Somalia.
He was succeeded by Nur Hassan Hussein. In October , violence rocked what had been a peaceful region when at least 28 people were killed in five suicide-bombings in northern Somalia.
Government officials cast blame on al-Shabab. The highest death toll was in Hargeisa, the capital of the breakaway northern region of Somaliland.
The following day, Parliament passed, , a confidence vote in the government of Hussein. Guled, resigned, however, saying he did not want to be "seen as a stumbling block to the peace process which is going well now.
Many Somalis greeted the election of Ahmed as an opportunity to move toward peace and end the brutal year war. Parliament approved the appointment.
Observers greeted the appointment with optimism, saying Sharmarke, a former diplomat and the son of Somalia's second civilian president, could help generate support both at home and abroad for the Islamist government.
Amid a growing threat from militant Islamists, Ethiopia began withdrawing troops from Somalia in January Al-Shabab formally declared allegiance to al-Qaeda in February , sparking further concern that the group posed a global threat.
It claimed responsibility for the July bombing at a restaurant in Kampala, Uganda, that killed about 75 people who were watching the final game of the World Cup.
The bombing was intended to send a message to countries that have sent troops to support Somalia's transitional government.
Prime Minister Omar Sharmarke, who has been criticized for failing to defeat the Shabab and who has been at odds with President Ahmed, resigned in September He was succeeded in November by Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed.
Piracy continued to plague the waters off Somalia and other parts of eastern Africa into In February, Somalia pirates killed four Americans who were sailing on their yacht in the piracy-laden water off the coast of Somalia.
The summer of brought drought to a country already laid low by nearly constant conflict, resulting in a UN-declared famine in two regions in southern Somalia.
With tens of thousands of Somalis dead of malnutrition and its related causes and ten million more at risk, those who could, fled, trying to reach neighboring Kenya and Ethiopia for help.
The figure is double early estimates. The report cites the delayed response by donor nations and the Shabab for not allowing the delivery of aid the affected areas.
After more than 20 years and 17 attempts at forming a internationally recognized central government, the Somali parliament held its inaugural session on Aug.
Since the Somali Civil War in the s, there has been no working government that covers all of Somalia; instead, different clans have been fighting for control.
Somalia is now trying to gain control of their people and get back up on its feet with very little resources. Groups of clans sometimes band together based on a common ancestor or other blood relationship.
Sometimes these family relationships date back hundreds or even thousands of years in the past. Somalis are mostly camel or goat herders, and depend on their livestock to live.
In Somalia there are limited sources of drinking water and grazing land, and disputes over grazing rights, water rights, or land in general can lead to fighting between families.
Because of the clan system, the families involved will call on their clan for help, leading to a clan war. The discovery of oil and minerals in Somalia, as well as the power and money associated with politics and business, has created more opportunities for families to get ahead, and has also created more reasons for families to have disputes.
Because Somalia does not have a working legal system, the only help a family in Somalia has to solve a dispute with another family is to get their clan involved.
The only solution to the clan wars in Somalia is a working legal system, but the only group who has succeeded in creating one is the Islamic Courts Union.
Unfortunately the Islamic Courts Union was accused of being terrorists and Ethiopia invaded Somalia to topple their government and put the government they created in power instead.
Somalis started herding camel and goats about 4, years ago, and they remain mostly herders today. Visitors from as far away as China visited Somalia, such as Zheng He.
The king of Ethiopia then took part of Ifat and added it to his kingdom, and made Ifat pay him lots of money once a year.
The remains of Ifat put their kingdom back together again and renamed it Adal. About a hundred years later, the King of Adal was deposed by an influential warlord by the name of Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi , who had lots of influence with Somali clans across the north.
He declared a Jihad against Ethiopia, brought together a huge army that included Turkish musketeers and Somali cavalry.
The Somali cavalry were especially deadly because they could shoot arrows while riding their horses, something that the Mongol hordes and Japanese Samurai are also famous for.
Ahmad chose a bad time, however, because the Portuguese Empire was muscling into East Africa. They had taken over the whole east African coast up to Baraawe, and were trying to take over Mogadishu.
The Portuguese decided to help out the Ethiopians because the Ethiopians were Christians and the Portuguese did not like Muslims.
A large part of the Somali peninsula is a tableland. To the extreme north, a narrow semidesert coastal plain that varies in width from around 12 km in the west to only 2 km in the east, borders the Gulf of Aden.
It is called Guban. Beyond this plain is the maritime mountain range of the Karkaar Mountains marked on the map hosting the highest point in the country, the 2, m tall Mount Shimbiris.
The range extends from the country's border with Ethiopia in the west up to the tip of the Horn of Africa. Southwards are broad plateau lands lacking perennial rivers that gradually drop in elevation to the east towards the Indian Ocean.
Alluvial plains are located further south and separated from the southern coast by a massive belt of ancient sand dunes that extend from Kismaayoto to Hobyo.